This page includes 72 published studies that administered the GBMMS. More resources will be added in the near future.

Thompson HS, Valdimarsdottir HB, Winkel G, Jandorf L, Redd W. The Group-Based Medical Mistrust Scale: psychometric properties and association with breast cancer screening. Prev Med. 2004 Feb;38(2):209-18. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2003.09.041. PMID: 14715214.


Alang S, McAlpine DD, Hardeman R. Police Brutality and Mistrust in Medical Institutions. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2020 Aug;7(4):760-768. doi: 10.1007/s40615-020-00706-w. Epub 2020 Jan 27. PMID: 31989532.”

Senft N, Hamel LM, Manning MA, Kim S, Penner LA, Moore TF, Carducci MA, Heath EI, Lansey DG, Albrecht TL, Wojda M, Jordan A, Eggly S. Willingness to Discuss Clinical Trials Among Black vs White Men With Prostate Cancer. JAMA Oncol. 2020 Sep 17;6(11):1–5. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.3697. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32940630; PMCID: PMC7499244.

Jaffee K, Cohen M, Azaiza F, Hammad A, Hamade H, Thompson H. Cultural Barriers to Breast Cancer Screening and Medical Mistrust Among Arab American Women. J Immigr Minor Health. 2021 Feb;23(1):95-102. doi: 10.1007/s10903-020-01019-0. PMID: 32451692.

Kline JA, Lin MP, Hall CL, Puskarich MA, Dehon E, Kuehl DR, Wang RC, Hess EP, Runyon MS, Wang H, Courtney DM. Perception of Physician Empathy Varies With Educational Level and Gender of Patients Undergoing Low-Yield Computerized Tomographic Imaging. J Patient Exp. 2020 Jun;7(3):386-394. doi: 10.1177/2374373519838529. Epub 2019 Apr 29. PMID: 32821799; PMCID: PMC7410137.

Kimball D, Rivera D, Gonzales M 4th, Blashill AJ. Medical Mistrust and the PrEP Cascade Among Latino Sexual Minority Men. AIDS Behav. 2020 Dec;24(12):3456-3461. doi: 10.1007/s10461-020-02916-z. PMID: 32405726; PMCID: PMC7665998.

Kue J, Szalacha LA, Happ MB, Menon U. Perceptions of Cervical Cancer and Screening Behavior among Cambodian and Lao Women in the United States: An Exploratory, Mixed-Methods Study. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2020;31(2):889-908. doi: 10.1353/hpu.2020.0067. PMID: 33410814.


Oakley LP, López-Cevallos DF, Harvey SM. The Association of Cultural and Structural Factors with Perceived Medical Mistrust Among Young Adult Latinos in Rural Oregon. Behav Med. 2019 Apr-Jun;45(2):118-127. doi: 10.1080/08964289.2019.1590799. PMID: 31343964.

Ellis JL, Kovach CR, Fendrich M, Olukotun O, Baldwin VK, Ke W, Nichols B. Factors Related to Medication Self-Management in African American Older Women. Res Gerontol Nurs. 2019 Mar 1;12(2):71-79. doi: 10.3928/19404921-20190206-01. PMID: 30893443; PMCID: PMC6918485.

Elliott JC, Critchley L, Feaster DJ, Hasin DS, Mandler RN, Osorio G, Rodriguez AE, Del Rio C, Metsch LR. The roles of heavy drinking and drug use in engagement in HIV care among hospitalized substance using individuals with poorly controlled HIV infection. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019 Aug 1;201:171-177. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.03.024. Epub 2019 Jun 5. PMID: 31234013; PMCID: PMC6677390.

Manning M, Albrecht TL, Penner L, Purrington K. Between-Race Differences in Processes Predicting Physician Communication for African American and European American Recipients of Breast Density Notifications. Ann Behav Med. 2019 Jul 17;53(8):721-731. doi: 10.1093/abm/kay079. PMID: 30285074; PMCID: PMC7331452.

Hernandez ND, Daley EM, Young L, Kolar SK, Wheldon C, Vamos CA, Cooper D. HPV Vaccine recommendations: does a health care provider’s gender and ethnicity matter to Unvaccinated Latina college women? Ethn Health. 2019 Aug;24(6):645-661. doi: 10.1080/13557858.2017.1367761. Epub 2017 Aug 22. PMID: 28826257.

Williamson LD, Smith MA, Bigman CA. Does Discrimination Breed Mistrust? Examining the Role of Mediated and Non-Mediated Discrimination Experiences in Medical Mistrust. J Health Commun. 2019;24(10):791-799. doi: 10.1080/10810730.2019.1669742. Epub 2019 Sep 27. PMID: 31559916.


Valera P, Boyas JF, Bernal C, Chiongbian VB, Chang Y, Shelton RC. A Validation of the Group-Based Medical Mistrust Scale in Formerly Incarcerated Black and Latino Men. Am J Mens Health. 2018 Jul;12(4):844-850. doi: 10.1177/1557988316645152. Epub 2016 May 4. PMID: 27192716; PMCID: PMC6131472.

Hall MB, Vos P, Bess JJ, Reburn KL, Locklear GD, McAlister J, Bell RA. Cervical Cancer Screening Behaviors and Perceptions of Medical Mistrust among Rural Black and White Women. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2018;29(4):1368-1385. doi: 10.1353/hpu.2018.0101. PMID: 30449752.

Oakley LP, Harvey SM, López-Cevallos DF. Racial and Ethnic Discrimination, Medical Mistrust, and Satisfaction with Birth Control Services among Young Adult Latinas. Womens Health Issues. 2018 Jul-Aug;28(4):313-320. doi: 10.1016/j.whi.2018.03.007. Epub 2018 May 2. PMID: 29729838.

Elliott JC, Brincks AM, Feaster DJ, Hasin DS, Del Rio C, Lucas GM, Rodriguez AE, Nijhawan AE, Metsch LR. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Problem Drinking Among Substance Users with Poorly Controlled HIV Infection. Alcohol Alcohol. 2018 Sep 1;53(5):603-610. doi: 10.1093/alcalc/agy021. PMID: 29596589; PMCID: PMC6104623.

Mendoza S, Armbrister AN, Abraído-Lanza AF. Are you better off? Perceptions of social mobility and satisfaction with care among Latina immigrants in the U.S. Soc Sci Med. 2018 Dec;219:54-60. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.10.014. Epub 2018 Oct 19. PMID: 30391870; PMCID: PMC6269107.


Wheldon CW, Kolar SK, Hernandez ND, Daley EM. Factorial Invariance and Convergent Validity of the Group-Based Medical Mistrust Scale across Gender and Ethnoracial Identity. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2017;28(1):88-99. doi: 10.1353/hpu.2017.0011. PMID: 28238990.

Arnold LD, McGilvray MM, Kyle Cooper J, James AS. Inadequate Cancer Screening: Lack of Provider Continuity is a Greater Obstacle than Medical Mistrust. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2017;28(1):362-377. doi: 10.1353/hpu.2017.0028. PMID: 28239007; PMCID: PMC5483852.

Brenick A, Romano K, Kegler C, Eaton LA. Understanding the Influence of Stigma and Medical Mistrust on Engagement in Routine Healthcare Among Black Women Who Have Sex with Women. LGBT Health. 2017 Feb;4(1):4-10. doi: 10.1089/lgbt.2016.0083. PMID: 28113005; PMCID: PMC5278794.

Kalichman SC, Eaton L, Kalichman MO, Cherry C. Medication beliefs mediate the association between medical mistrust and antiretroviral adherence among African Americans living with HIV/AIDS. J Health Psychol. 2017 Mar;22(3):269-279. doi: 10.1177/1359105315600239. Epub 2016 Jul 10. PMID: 26311814.

Manning M, Albrecht TL, Yilmaz-Saab Z, Penner L, Norman A, Purrington K. Explaining between-race differences in African-American and European-American women’s responses to breast density notification. Soc Sci Med. 2017 Dec;195:149-158. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.10.006. Epub 2017 Oct 30. PMID: 29102420; PMCID: PMC6136892.

Pellowski JA, Price DM, Allen AM, Eaton LA, Kalichman SC. The differences between medical trust and mistrust and their respective influences on medication beliefs and ART adherence among African-Americans living with HIV. Psychol Health. 2017 Sep;32(9):1127-1139. doi: 10.1080/08870446.2017.1324969. Epub 2017 May 5. PMID: 28475365.

Penner LA, Harper FWK, Dovidio JF, Albrecht TL, Hamel LM, Senft N, Eggly S. The impact of Black cancer patients’ race-related beliefs and attitudes on racially-discordant oncology interactions: A field study. Soc Sci Med. 2017 Oct;191:99-108. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.08.034. Epub 2017 Aug 30. PMID: 28917141; PMCID: PMC5706115.

Barsevick AM, Leader A, Bradley PK, Avery T, Dean LT, DiCarlo M, Hegarty SE. Post-treatment problems of African American breast cancer survivors. Support Care Cancer. 2016 Dec;24(12):4979-4986. doi: 10.1007/s00520-016-3359-z. Epub 2016 Aug 19. PMID: 27543161; PMCID: PMC5539961.

Eggly S, Hamel LM, Foster TS, Albrecht TL, Chapman R, Harper FWK, Thompson H, Griggs JJ, Gonzalez R, Berry-Bobovski L, Tkatch R, Simon M, Shields A, Gadgeel S, Loutfi R, Ali H, Wollner I, Penner LA. Randomized trial of a question prompt list to increase patient active participation during interactions with black patients and their oncologists. Patient Educ Couns. 2017 May;100(5):818-826. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2016.12.026. Epub 2016 Dec 27. PMID: 28073615; PMCID: PMC5400698.


Penner LA, Dovidio JF, Hagiwara N, Foster T, Albrecht TL, Chapman RA, Eggly S. An Analysis of Race-related Attitudes and Beliefs in Black Cancer Patients: Implications for Health Care Disparities. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2016;27(3):1503-20. doi: 10.1353/hpu.2016.0115. PMID: 27524781; PMCID: PMC5607864.

Shelton RC, Dunston SK, Leoce N, Jandorf L, Thompson HS, Crookes DM, Erwin DO. Predictors of activity level and retention among African American lay health advisors (LHAs) from The National Witness Project: Implications for the implementation and sustainability of community-based LHA programs from a longitudinal study. Implement Sci. 2016 Mar 22;11:41. doi: 10.1186/s13012-016-0403-9. PMID: 27000149; PMCID: PMC4802871.

Kalichman SC, Eaton L, Kalichman MO, Grebler T, Merely C, Welles B. Race-based medical mistrust, medication beliefs and HIV treatment adherence: test of a mediation model in people living with HIV/AIDS. J Behav Med. 2016 Dec;39(6):1056-1064. doi: 10.1007/s10865-016-9767-1. Epub 2016 Jul 9. PMID: 27392477; PMCID: PMC5106314.

Fields A, Abraham M, Gaughan J, Haines C, Hoehn KS. Language Matters: Race, Trust, and Outcomes in the Pediatric Emergency Department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2016 Apr;32(4):222-6. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0000000000000453. PMID: 27031004.


Bustillo NE, McGinty HL, Dahn JR, Yanez B, Antoni MH, Kava BR, Penedo FJ. Fatalism, medical mistrust, and pretreatment health-related quality of life in ethnically diverse prostate cancer patients. Psychooncology. 2017 Mar;26(3):323-329. doi: 10.1002/pon.4030. Epub 2015 Nov 9. PMID: 26553139; PMCID: PMC4945476.

Manne S, Steinberg MB, Delnevo C, Ulpe R, Sorice K. Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Foreign-born South Asians in the Metropolitan New York/New Jersey Region. J Community Health. 2015 Dec;40(6):1075-83. doi: 10.1007/s10900-015-0053-x. PMID: 26072261; PMCID: PMC5507573.

Kolar SK, Wheldon C, Hernandez ND, Young L, Romero-Daza N, Daley EM. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Knowledge and Attitudes, Preventative Health Behaviors, and Medical Mistrust Among a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Sample of College Women. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2015 Mar;2(1):77-85. doi: 10.1007/s40615-014-0050-2. Epub 2014 Sep 11. PMID: 26863245.

Brener L, Wilson H, Jackson LC, Johnson P, Saunders V, Treloar C. Experiences of diagnosis, care and treatment among Aboriginal people living with hepatitis C. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2016 Apr;40 Suppl 1:S59-64. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12402. Epub 2015 Jun 29. PMID: 26123616.

Sheppard VB, O’Neill SC, Dilawari A, Horton S, Hirpa FA, Isaacs C. Patterns of 21-gene assay testing and chemotherapy use in black and white breast cancer patients. Clin Breast Cancer. 2015 Apr;15(2):e83-92. doi: 10.1016/j.clbc.2014.11.011. Epub 2014 Dec 1. PMID: 25555816; PMCID: PMC5266534.

Valera P, Kates-Benman CL. Exploring the Use of Special Housing Units by Men Released From New York Correctional Facilities: A Small Mixed-Methods Study. Am J Mens Health. 2016 Nov;10(6):466-473. doi: 10.1177/1557988315569880. Epub 2015 Mar 10. PMID: 25759366.

Stokes LR, Harvey SM, Warren JT. Individual, Interpersonal, and Structural Power: Associations With Condom Use in a Sample of Young Adult Latinos. Health Care Women Int. 2016;37(2):216-36. doi: 10.1080/07399332.2015.1038345. Epub 2015 Apr 14. PMID: 25868753.

Kalichman SC, Eaton L, Kalichman MO, Cherry C. Medication beliefs mediate the association between medical mistrust and antiretroviral adherence among African Americans living with HIV/AIDS. J Health Psychol. 2017 Mar;22(3):269-279. doi: 10.1177/1359105315600239. Epub 2016 Jul 10. PMID: 26311814.


Lin JJ, Mhango G, Wall MM, Lurslurchachai L, Bond KT, Nelson JE, Berman AR, Salazar-Schicchi J, Powell C, Keller SM, Halm EA, Leventhal H, Wisnivesky JP. Cultural factors associated with racial disparities in lung cancer care. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014 May;11(4):489-95. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201402-055OC. PMID: 24701981; PMCID: PMC5469392.

Sheppard VB, Harper FW, Davis K, Hirpa F, Makambi K. The importance of contextual factors and age in association with anxiety and depression in Black breast cancer patients. Psychooncology. 2014 Feb;23(2):143-50. doi: 10.1002/pon.3382. Epub 2013 Oct 22. PMID: 24150907; PMCID: PMC4144019.

Eaton LA, Driffin DD, Smith H, Conway-Washington C, White D, Cherry C. Psychosocial factors related to willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among Black men who have sex with men attending a community event. Sex Health. 2014 Jul;11(3):244-51. doi: 10.1071/SH14022. PMID: 25001553; PMCID: PMC4331017.

López-Cevallos DF, Harvey SM, Warren JT. Medical mistrust, perceived discrimination, and satisfaction with health care among young-adult rural latinos. J Rural Health. 2014 Fall;30(4):344-51. doi: 10.1111/jrh.12063. Epub 2014 Feb 27. PMID: 24576017.

Thélémaque, L. D., Madden, D., & Jandorf, L. (2014). Variance in Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs and Behaviors amongst African American and Afro-Caribbean Women. Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education,2014.

Greer TM, Brondolo E, Brown P. Systemic racism moderates effects of provider racial biases on adherence to hypertension treatment for African Americans. Health Psychol. 2014 Jan;33(1):35-42. doi: 10.1037/a0032777. Epub 2013 Jun 3. PMID: 23730720.

Menon U, Szalacha L, Prabhughate A, Kue J. Correlates of colorectal cancer screening among South Asian immigrants in the United States. Cancer Nurs. 2014 Jan-Feb;37(1):E19-27. doi: 10.1097/NCC.0b013e31828db95e. PMID: 23632468.


Buseh A, Kelber S, Millon-Underwood S, Stevens P, Townsend L. Knowledge, group-based medical mistrust, future expectations, and perceived disadvantages of medical genetic testing: perspectives of Black African immigrants/refugees. Public Health Genomics. 2014;17(1):33-42. doi: 10.1159/000356013. Epub 2013 Dec 24. PMID: 24401187.

Sussner KM, Jandorf L, Thompson HS, Valdimarsdottir HB. Barriers and facilitators to BRCA genetic counseling among at-risk Latinas in New York City. Psychooncology. 2013 Jul;22(7):1594-604. doi: 10.1002/pon.3187. Epub 2012 Sep 16. PMID: 22987526; PMCID: PMC3541466.

Sheppard VB, Isaacs C, Luta G, Willey SC, Boisvert M, Harper FW, Smith K, Horton S, Liu MC, Jennings Y, Hirpa F, Snead F, Mandelblatt JS. Narrowing racial gaps in breast cancer chemotherapy initiation: the role of the patient-provider relationship. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013 May;139(1):207-16. doi: 10.1007/s10549-013-2520-3. Epub 2013 Apr 16. PMID: 23588954; PMCID: PMC3662254.

Bergamo C, Lin JJ, Smith C, Lurslurchachai L, Halm EA, Powell CA, Berman A, Schicchi JS, Keller SM, Leventhal H, Wisnivesky JP. Evaluating beliefs associated with late-stage lung cancer presentation in minorities. J Thorac Oncol. 2013 Jan;8(1):12-8. doi: 10.1097/JTO.0b013e3182762ce4. PMID: 23207921.

Jandorf L, Braschi C, Ernstoff E, Wong CR, Thelemaque L, Winkel G, Thompson HS, Redd WH, Itzkowitz SH. Culturally targeted patient navigation for increasing african americans’ adherence to screening colonoscopy: a randomized clinical trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 Sep;22(9):1577-87. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-1275. Epub 2013 Jun 10. PMID: 23753039; PMCID: PMC3769457.


Graves KD, Jensen RE, Cañar J, Perret-Gentil M, Leventhal KG, Gonzalez F, Caicedo L, Jandorf L, Kelly S, Mandelblatt J. Through the lens of culture: quality of life among Latina breast cancer survivors. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012 Nov;136(2):603-13. doi: 10.1007/s10549-012-2291-2. Epub 2012 Oct 21. PMID: 23085764; PMCID: PMC3547364.

Neugut AI, Hillyer GC, Kushi LH, Lamerato L, Leoce N, Nathanson SD, Ambrosone CB, Bovbjerg DH, Mandelblatt JS, Magai C, Tsai WY, Jacobson JS, Hershman DL. Noninitiation of adjuvant chemotherapy in women with localized breast cancer: the breast cancer quality of care study. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Nov 1;30(31):3800-9. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2012.43.8168. Epub 2012 Sep 24. PMID: 23008305; PMCID: PMC3478575.

Menon U, Szalacha LA, Prabhughate A. Breast and cervical cancer screening among South Asian immigrants in the United States. Cancer Nurs. 2012 Jul-Aug;35(4):278-87. doi: 10.1097/NCC.0b013e31822fcab4. PMID: 21963722.


Shelton RC, Jandorf L, Ellison J, Villagra C, DuHamel KN. The influence of sociocultural factors on colonoscopy and FOBT screening adherence among low-income Hispanics. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2011 Aug;22(3):925-44. doi: 10.1353/hpu.2011.0074. PMID: 21841288; PMCID: PMC3635094.

Abraído-Lanza AF, Céspedes A, Daya S, Flórez KR, White K. Satisfaction with health care among Latinas. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2011 May;22(2):491-505. doi: 10.1353/hpu.2011.0042. PMID: 21551929; PMCID: PMC3606813.

Jibara G, Jandorf L, Fodera MB, DuHamel KN. Adherence to physician recommendation to colorectal cancer screening colonoscopy among Hispanics. J Gen Intern Med. 2011 Oct;26(10):1124-30. doi: 10.1007/s11606-011-1727-4. Epub 2011 May 4. PMID: 21541795; PMCID: PMC3181293.

Cogbill SA, Thompson VL, Deshpande AD. Selected sociocultural correlates of physical activity among African-American adults. Ethn Health. 2011 Dec;16(6):625-41. doi: 10.1080/13557858.2011.603040. Epub 2011 Aug 18. PMID: 21848488; PMCID: PMC3208801.

Zhang AY. Discord of biological and psychological measures in a group of depressed african american and white cancer patients. Open Nurs J. 2011;5:60-4. doi: 10.2174/1874434601105010060. Epub 2011 Sep 30. PMID: 22135714; PMCID: PMC3227875.


Kreuter MW, Holmes K, Alcaraz K, Kalesan B, Rath S, Richert M, McQueen A, Caito N, Robinson L, Clark EM. Comparing narrative and informational videos to increase mammography in low-income African American women. Patient Educ Couns. 2010 Dec;81 Suppl(Suppl):S6-14. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2010.09.008. Epub 2010 Nov 10. PMID: 21071167; PMCID: PMC3146295.

Thompson VL, Kalesan B, Wells A, Williams SL, Caito NM. Comparing the use of evidence and culture in targeted colorectal cancer communication for African Americans. Patient Educ Couns. 2010 Dec;81 Suppl:S22-33. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2010.07.019. Epub 2010 Aug 10. PMID: 20702056; PMCID: PMC2988986.

Jandorf L, Ellison J, Villagra C, Winkel G, Varela A, Quintero-Canetti Z, Castillo A, Thélémaque L, King S, Duhamel K. Understanding the barriers and facilitators of colorectal cancer screening among low income immigrant hispanics. J Immigr Minor Health. 2010 Aug;12(4):462-9. doi: 10.1007/s10903-009-9274-3. PMID: 19621259; PMCID: PMC2904838.

Purnell JQ, Katz ML, Andersen BL, Palesh O, Figueroa-Moseley C, Jean-Pierre P, Bennett N. Social and cultural factors are related to perceived colorectal cancer screening benefits and intentions in African Americans. J Behav Med. 2010 Feb;33(1):24-34. doi: 10.1007/s10865-009-9231-6. Epub 2009 Oct 30. PMID: 19876727; PMCID: PMC3044499.

McQueen A, Kreuter MW. Women’s cognitive and affective reactions to breast cancer survivor stories: a structural equation analysis. Patient Educ Couns. 2010 Dec;81 Suppl:S15-21. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2010.08.015. Epub 2010 Sep 17. PMID: 20850258; PMCID: PMC2993782.

Sussner KM, Jandorf L, Thompson HS, Valdimarsdottir HB. Interest and beliefs about BRCA genetic counseling among at-risk Latinas in New York City. J Genet Couns. 2010 Jun;19(3):255-68. doi: 10.1007/s10897-010-9282-4. Epub 2010 Feb 12. PMID: 20151317; PMCID: PMC4403243.


Benkert R, Hollie B, Nordstrom CK, Wickson B, Bins-Emerick L. Trust, mistrust, racial identity and patient satisfaction in urban African American primary care patients of nurse practitioners. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2009;41(2):211-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.2009.01273.x. PMID: 19538706.

Sussner KM, Thompson HS, Valdimarsdottir HB, Redd WH, Jandorf L. Acculturation and familiarity with, attitudes towards and beliefs about genetic testing for cancer risk within Latinas in East Harlem, New York City. J Genet Couns. 2009 Feb;18(1):60-71. doi: 10.1007/s10897-008-9182-z. Epub 2008 Aug 7. PMID: 18686019; PMCID: PMC2750831.

Halbert CH, Weathers B, Delmoor E, Mahler B, Coyne J, Thompson HS, Have TT, Vaughn D, Malkowicz SB, Lee D. Racial differences in medical mistrust among men diagnosed with prostate cancer. Cancer. 2009 Jun 1;115(11):2553-61. doi: 10.1002/cncr.24249. PMID: 19296516; PMCID: PMC2701108.

Borrayo EA, González P, Swaim R, Marcus A, Flores E, Espinoza P. The Latina Breast Cancer Screening Scale: beliefs about breast cancer and breast cancer screening. J Health Psychol. 2009 Oct;14(7):944-55. doi: 10.1177/1359105309341203. PMID: 19786521.


Cronan TA, Villalta I, Gottfried E, Vaden Y, Ribas M, Conway TL. Predictors of mammography screening among ethnically diverse low-income women. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2008 May;17(4):527-37. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2007.0331. PMID: 18447760.


Mental Health Services Access for Sexual Minority Individuals.  Gina P. Owens, Ellen D. B. Riggle, Sharon Scales Rostosky; Sexuality Research & Social Policy; September 2007 Vol. 4, No. 3


Christie J, Hooper C, Redd WH, Winkel G, DuHamel K, Itzkowitz S, Jandorf L. Predictors of endoscopy in minority women. J Natl Med Assoc. 2005 Oct;97(10):1361-8. PMID: 16355488; PMCID: PMC2594706.